Silica Exposure Campaign
Last updated April 2023
VTHC Exposure Standard - 0.02mg/m3 as an 8hr TWA, with an action level of 0.01mg/m3.
Victorian Trades Hall Council has updated its approved safety standard for silica exposure.
Since we launched our campaign in 2018 to reduce the exposure standard in Australia to 0.025mg/m3 as an 8 hour time weighted average and more cases of silicosis have been diagnosed in workers in using engineered stone, the regulators took action.
VTHC is of the view that the state of knowledge in Victoria is now such that employers must control the risk of exposure where employees are exposed to respirable silica dust at or above 0.02mg/m3 as an 8-hr TWA, with an action level of 0.01mg/m3. We also support the phasing out of engineered stone completely.
This is a decision made given:
- The high risk of contracting a fatal illness as a result of exposure to respirable silica dust.
- The scientific call for an exposure standard below 0.05mg/m3 as an 8 hour TWA
- The implementation of the USA silica exposure standard at 0.025mg/m3 as an 8 hour TWA
- The position of the cancer council of Australia.
Please find a printable VTHC Approved Safety Standard below to print out and take to your place of work if you believe you are at risk to exposure to silica dust as well as a poster to raise awareness of the issue in your workplace.
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Crystalline Silica: Engineered Stone Compliance Code
The Managing Exposure to Crystalline Silica: Engineered Stone Compliance Code came into effect, 15 November 2022.
The code expands on the existing 2020 code, and has been updated to include duties and obligations introduced under Part 4.5 of the OHS Regulations to provide greater protection for Victorians workers.
Key updates include information on duties:
- that apply to an engineered stone process
- to prepare engineered stone control plans
- that apply to engineered stone licence holders; and
- that apply to manufacturers and suppliers.
A copy of the code can be found on WorkSafe’s website, or by calling WorkSafe’s Advisory Service
Action Plan for Health and Safety Reps
A strategy to prevent work related injury and illness must be aimed at modifying the workplace - controlling the hazard at source - rather than modifying, screening or excluding workers from the workplace.
As an OHS rep, you need to make your members aware of the risks of exposure to silica and ensure that the employer complies with his/her duties under the legislation to eliminate or reduce the risks.
- Check that materials used for abrasive blasting DO NOT contain more than 1% silica.
- Equipment used for cutting, grinding, etc. should be fitted with dust extraction devices.
- Where dust extraction is not practical, wet methods should be utilised.
- Unfortunately, for many jobs, some form of respiratory protection will be required. The type of respirator will depend on the amount of dust created by the process. Ensure the workers are thoroughly trained in the use and maintenance of respiratory protective devices. This training must be provided by an appropriately trained person before workers are required to use the PPE.
- Where there is likely to be excessive dust, all other workers should be cleared from the area so as prevent any unnecessary exposure.
- The removal of residual dust generated by the work process must be done in a manner that will not make the dust airborne
- Work with your workmates and your union to implement the VTHC Silica standard .
It is important that there be monitoring of silica dust levels generated by the activity. The results can then be used to establish effective control methods in work practices and ensure that they remain effective. It is important that an approved workplace consultant who can also provide advice on workplace control strategies do monitoring. Contact your union for further advice.
What is Crystalline Silica Dust?
Crystalline silica is one of the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust and is a major constituent of construction materials such as bricks, tiles and concrete.
Crystalline silica consists of silicon and oxygen atoms (SiO2) arranged in a regular crystalline structure. There are different crystalline forms of silica, with the most common being quartz. In some circumstances, for example in the high temperatures of industrial furnaces and kilns, quartz may convert to another crystalline form of silica known as cristobalite. Quartz is found in varying amounts in almost all types of rock, sands, clays, shales and gravel. For example, sandstone is almost pure quartz, whereas granite might contain 15-30% quartz.
Exposure to silica dust causes many problems not only to miners and quarry workers, but also to workers in certain types of construction and demolition work, as well as those working in art rooms. Composite stone - now used extensively in modern kitchens and bathrooms - has been found to contain even higher levels: up to 80%. This has created a much increased risk for workers in this industry.
Silica dust is so fine it can enter the deepest parts of the lungs. This dust can build up in the lungs and scar them - leading to a number of diseases ( see more information, below)
Silica is classified as a hazardous substance and is therefore regulated under Chapter 4 - Hazardous Substances - of the 2017 Occupational Health and Safety Regulations. This means that the employer has the legal duty to identify the hazard and eliminate or control any risk, provide information and training , undertake atmospheric monitoring, maintain records and, in the case of crystalline silica, carry out health surveillance. In August 2019, the Victorian government banned the dry cutting of silica and introduced new, temporary, regulations. These were due to be replaced by a permanent regulation by August, 2020, but the expiry date has been further extended to November 2021. See: Part 4.5 Crystalline Silica
On 1 January 2002, the use of materials containing more than 1% crystalline silica for abrasive blasting was prohibited in all Victorian workplaces. The prohibition was made under the then Occupational Health and Safety (Hazardous Substances) Regulations 1999. This means materials such as silica sand, river sand, beach sand and other white sands must not be used for abrasive blasting. The WorkSafe website has more information on the ban.
More information on the duties of the employer under Part 4.1 - Hazardous Substances - of the OHS regulations.
Internationally, the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits' (SCOEL) assessment of crystalline silica concludes that there is sufficient evidence from epidemiological studies to indicate that silicosis, the main effect in humans after occupational inhalation of respirable silica dust, is associated with the development of lung cancer. Therefore, preventing the onset of silicosis is likely to reduce the risk of lung cancer. According to the SCOEL assessment of crystalline silica, a dose-response curve for silicosis indicates that maintaining the respirable exposure below 0.05 mg/m3 would reduce the prevalence of silicosis in exposed individuals. Therefore the SCOEL committee has recommended that the occupational exposure limit (OEL) is below 0.05 mg/m3 of respirable silica dust (SCOEL, 2003). (The Tier II assessment is available here.)
The current Australian standard is now 0.05mg/m3 - this has now been adopted in most jurisdictions, including Victoria. In fact, WorkSafe Victoria is very much in line with the VTHC exposure standard in that it "recommends that employers take a precautionary approach and reduce employees' exposure to below 0.02 mg/m³ as an 8-hour TWA to prevent silicosis and minimise the risk of lung cancer." Read more: Crystalline Silica - Safety Basics
In February 2022, a new Compliance Code was declared: Managing exposure to crystalline silica – engineered stone
On August 31, 2108, the VTHC launched its Silica Standard of 0.025mg/m3 . There is ample scientific evidence that the current Australian standard is putting workers' lives at risk. In June 2021, the VTHC adopted its new standard of 0.02mg/m3 as an 8hr TWA, with an action level of 0.01mg/m3.
Download the Poster here. Download the Standard, with further information, here. VTHC Media Release: The Killer in your kitchen [pdf]
More information on silica and its effects
The following activities create silica dust:
- Brick cutting and chasing.
- Angle grinding on concrete or masonry.
- Concrete cutting. Jack hammering, scabbling and chiselling of concrete.
- Cleaning up of dust and debris created by the above activities.
- Cutting and working with manufactured stone (eg Caesarstone)
Workers at risk include those involved in:
- building, construction and demolition work
- preparing kitchen/laundry benchtops (manufactured stone)
- excavation work
- abrasive blasting (but use of silica in abrasive blasting is now prohibited in Victoria - see below)
- mining, quarrying, crushing and tunnelling work
- brick making and glass making
- road building
- foundry or casting work
- explosives blasting work
- art workers, including teachers and cleaners
- jewellery workers (particularly in developing countries)
What are the health effects of exposure to silica dust?
The following diseases are caused by excessive exposure to airborne silica dust:
- Acute silicosis (rapid development after short exposure to high concentrations of silica dust).
- Silicotuberculosis (silicosis sufferers are at a higher risk of developing tuberculosis)
- Lung cancer
Silica dust, along with other atmospheric contaminates, can also cause or exacerbate these diseases:
- Simple chronic bronchitis;
- Chronic airway obstruction;
- Lung cancer.
Recently lawyers have successfully drawn a connection to silica exposure and a number of autoimmune conditions including lupus, scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis. In March 2021, WorkSafe Victoria insurers accepted a compensation claim for an employee who was diagnosed with lupus after being exposed to toxic silica dust. Read more and listen to ABC radio here)
What is silicosis?
Silicosis is a serious disease of the lungs caused by breathing in crystalline silica dust. Crystalline silica is a basic component of soil, sand, granite, and many other minerals (a common type is quartz). It can become respirable dust when workers chip, cut, drill, or grind objects that contain crystalline silica. In addition, the practice of using sand and other materials containing silica for abrasive blasting led to the creation of high levels of crystalline silica dust.
Silicosis can be disabling or even fatal. There are three types of silicosis:
- Chronic/classic silicosis - this is the most common form and occurs after 15-20 years of moderate to low exposures to respirable crystalline silica.
- Accelerated silicosis - which can occur after 5-10 years of high exposure.
- Acute silicosis - which can occur after a few months or as long as 2 years after exposure to extremely high levels of crystalline silica.
To learn more about the terrible effects of the disease, see this short film from China: Dying to breathe, about workers who contract silicosis after working in gold mines.
Crystalline silica also causes cancer of the lungs.
The VTHC OHS Unit has a webinar on Silica broadcast in August 2018 and available here on our Facebook page: you should check out - and then complete the quiz.
October, 2017 Cancer Council targets Silica Dust
Cancer Council Australia called for tradies to be more aware of cancer risks on the job in the light of new estimates that over 230 lung cancer cases in Australia each year are caused by exposure to silica dust in the workplace. About 600,000 Australian workers are exposed to silica dust at work each year, including miners, construction workers, farmers, engineers, bricklayers and road construction workers, as well as those working in demolition.
Terry Slevin, Chair, Occupational and Environmental Cancer Risk Committee Cancer Council Australia, said "Silica is surprisingly common – it's found in stone, rock, sand, gravel and clay, as well as bricks, tiles, concrete and some plastic materials. When these materials are worked on or cut, silica is released as a fine dust that's 100 times smaller than a grain of sand. It's so small you can't see it – but if you breathe it in, in some cases it can lead to lung cancer."
Mr Slevin said that it was the responsibility of both employers and employees to act now to reduce the number of silica related lung cancer cases. "Employers have a legal responsibility to provide a safe place to work. Likewise, those working with silica need to take responsibility for their future health, get informed and protect themselves."
Read more: Media Release, Silica dust - the cancer risk tradies can't see, and new webpage with downloadable pdf document.
Hierarchy of Controls for Silica
Use your mouse to rollover each section of the hierarchy of control to see a suggested method of controlling exposure to silica dust.
The OHS team at Victoria Trades Hall Council recently produced a webinar with industry experts on silica, where it's found, the damage it can cause and the protective actions that can be taken.
To help test your knowledge on silica, we developed a short quiz. Go for 5/5.
- CFMEU Alert: Silica Dust Dangers
- Artificial stone associated silicosis - A rapidly emerging occupational lung disease. A Power point presentation [pdf] by Dr Ryan Hoy, November 2017
- Crystalline Silica - Webpage
- Compliance Code Managing exposure to crystalline silica - engineered stone (November 2021). Reconstituted stone products such as those used as kitchen benchtops can contain up to 95 per cent crystalline silica. When such products are cut, ground, drilled or polished, they release very fine dust. Breathing in this dust is likely to cause deadly diseases, such as silicosis and lung cancer.
This document outlines the employer responsibilities for controlling the risks of exposure to crystalline silica dust from reconstituted stone. It covers ways to control the dust, and requirements for health and air monitoring.
From Safe Work Australia:
2019 guidance Working with silica and silica containing products. The guidance is particularly aimed at any person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU - or employer in Victoria) who has workers (including themselves) that work with silica or silica containing products. This guidance has now been translated into a number of languages.
- From WA: a Guidance note - Safe stone product fabrication and installation [pdf] (December 2018)
From the HSE: a range of COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health) Essentials with a range of flyers for managers and then a number of topics for:
- :Brick and tile making - information on clay milling, sand handling and screening, facing green bricks with sand, moving green and fired bricks, manual dehacking and batching, tile pressing, ventilated vehicle cabs
- Construction - information on concrete scabbling, chasing, Drilling and coring with power tools, crushing and screening, clearing and removing rubble, tunnelling and shaft sinking, and more.
- Ceramics - information on glaze and colour preparation, casting, fettling, kiln loading (placing) and unloading, and spraying glazes and colours
- Foundries - covering topics from fumes to furnace relining
- Manufacturing - information on making products that include mineral powder, dry-mixing powders containing silica, and small packing operations: Dry products containing silica
- Quarries - information on exacavting and haulage, crushing, drying and cooling, dry screening , silica flour: bag filling and transfer, cleaning up silica dusts and more
- Slate Works - information on primary sawing, automated slate sawing, sawing slate into special sizes and shapes, manual slate splitting, and dressing slate
- Stonemasons - information for managers, and on sawing, using rotary tools and chiselling
Stoneworkers - a topic information page
- Controlling exposure to stonemasonry dust: Guidance for employers
and Control of Exposure to Silica advice for employers on how to protect themselves and their employees from harmful dust present in many products like bricks, tiles and concrete.
- From the US:
- From National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), a webpage on silicosis - specifically for workers in construction and abrasive blasting.
- Construction Research and Training (CPWR) - an organisation working closely with US construction unions- a website Work safely with silica. As well as information on US silica regulation and official research, the new resource includes other research, articles, and training materials, as well as responses to frequently asked questions. The site includes a 'Know the hazard' section, geared for anyone interested in learning more about why silica is hazardous, the risk, who's at risk, the health effects, and steps workers and contractors can take to work safely with silica.
Important Chemicals Information
- Hazardous Substances - An introduction to Legislation
- Dangerous or Hazardous? What's the difference?
- Chemicals management in workplaces
- Material Safety Data Sheets
- Exposure Standards for Chemicals
- Chemicals - Useful websites
- Cancer - what causes it?
- Occupational cancer and Workers' Memorial Day
- Chemicals and contact lenses
- Dust masks - how effective are they?
- Dermatitis & other skin conditions
- Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
- Perfumes and scents: chemicals too!